What are the frequency characteristics of transformers? Are they related to the circuit components and the ratio of primary to secondary turns around the iron core? — JM, Lakewood, Colorado
The frequency characteristics of a transformer are determined principally by the materials in the transformer’s core. Power flows from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit by way of the magnetization of the transformer’s core. With each half-cycle of the alternating current in the primary circuit, the transformer’s core must magnetize and demagnetize. A transformer core’s ability to magnetize and demagnetize properly depends on the frequency of the alternating current in the transformer’s coils. If that frequency is too low, the core may saturate—reach its maximum possible magnetization—during the half-cycle. In that case, the core will not be able to transfer the requisite amount of energy to the secondary coil and the power transferred between the two coils will be inadequate. That’s why low frequency transformers often contain huge iron cores—cores that avoid saturation by spreading out the magnetization and stored energy over large volumes of iron.
On the other hand, if the frequency of current in the primary is too high, the core may be unable to magnetize and demagnetize fast enough to keep up with it and the power transfer will again be inadequate. The core may also become hot due to friction-like losses in the core material. That’s why high frequency transformers use special core materials such as ferrite powders or even air. Although air (or really empty space) can’t store large amounts of energy in small volumes when it magnetizes, it can respond extremely quickly. Air-core transformers operate well at extremely high frequencies.