Why does cold temperature affect the bounce of a basketball? Will a basketball freeze if placed in a freezer? — SS, Lebanon, Tennessee
A basketball depends on pressurized air for its bounciness. When the ball hits the court, it compresses that air and the air stores energy in its compression. The ball’s rebound is powered by the air returning to its original characteristics. The ball’s skin, on the other hand, isn’t all that bouncy and doesn’t store energy well. To bounce well, the basketball needs to store energy in its air during the bounce, not in its skin. That’s why it’s important to have an air pump so that you can keep your basketball properly inflated.
When you cool a basketball, however, you reduce the pressure of its air. That’s because the air molecules have less thermal energy at colder temperatures and thermal energy is responsible for air pressure. A basketball that was properly inflated at warm temperature becomes under-inflated when you cool it down. At the same time, the basketball’s skin becomes less elastic and more leathery at cool temperatures. So the basketball suffers from under-inflation and from a leathery, not-very-bouncy skin.
If you cool a basketball to low enough temperature, its skin will freeze and become brittle. Just how low the temperature has to go depends on the material used in to make the basketball. I’ve never seen a basketball shatter on the court, even in pretty cold weather, so I doubt you can “freeze” one in a household freezer. But I’m sure that a dip in liquid nitrogen at -395 °F would do the trick. I often freeze rubber handballs in liquid nitrogen for my class and then shatter them on the floor.