## I’m doing a science experiment of what factors affect the distance a golf ball t…

#### I’m doing a science experiment of what factors affect the distance a golf ball travels. One of my factors is the bounciness of the ball. Does this have any effect on the distance the ball will go? — EG, North Salem, NY

Yes. The bouncier the golf ball, the farther it will go after being struck by a golf club. While we normally think of a bounce as occurring when a ball hits a stationary object, it’s also a bounce when a moving object hits a stationary ball. The golf ball bounces from the golf club and the more bouncy the golf ball is, the faster and farther it will travel.

## What is the difference in distance that a soccer ball will travel if the air pre…

#### What is the difference in distance that a soccer ball will travel if the air pressure in the ball changes? — AB

A properly inflated soccer ball bounces well when you drop it on a hard floor because the ball stores energy by compressing the air during the bounce and the air returns this energy quite efficiently during the rebound. An under inflated soccer ball doesn’t bounce so well because it stores energy by bending its leather surface during the bounce and the leather doesn’t return energy very efficiently during the rebound. The same result holds true when you kick a ball rather than dropping it on the floor. Whether a moving ball hits a stationary surface or a stationary ball hits a moving surface, the ball is still bouncing from a surface. When you kick a ball with your foot, the ball is bouncing from your foot and a properly inflated ball will bounce more efficiently from your foot than an under inflated ball. The properly inflated ball will rebound at a higher speed and will travel farther.

## What causes a dropped ball to bounce? – MK

#### What causes a dropped ball to bounce? – MK

When you lift a ball off the floor, you transfer energy to it. This energy is stored in the gravitational force between the ball and the earth and is called gravitational potential energy. When you release the ball, its weight makes it accelerate downward and its gravitational potential energy gradually becomes kinetic energy, the energy of motion. When the ball hits the floor, both the ball’s bottom surface and the floor’s upper surface begin to distort and the ball’s kinetic energy becomes elastic potential energy in these two distorted surfaces. The ball accelerates upward during this process and eventually comes to a complete stop. When it does, most of the energy that was initially gravitational potential energy and later kinetic energy has become elastic potential energy in the surfaces. However, some of the original energy has been converted into thermal energy by internal frictional forces in the ball and floor. The distorted ball and floor then push apart and the ball rebounds into the air. Some or most of the elastic potential energy becomes kinetic energy in the ball, and the rising ball then converts this kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy. But the ball doesn’t reach its original height because some of its original gravitational potential energy has been converted into thermal energy during the bounce.

## Does the air pressure of a basketball and the hardness of the floor surface have…

#### Does the air pressure of a basketball and the hardness of the floor surface have an effect on the height of the bounce? — BB, West Unity, OH

Yes to both questions. When a basketball collides with the floor, the ball’s kinetic energy—its energy of motion—is temporarily stored as elastic potential energy in two objects: the ball and the floor. The fractions of the collision energy stored in the basketball and the floor depend on how far each of them dents—the more one dents, the larger the fraction of the collision energy it receives. How well the basketball rebounds from the floor depends on how much of the collision energy returns to the ball during the rebound. Some of the stored energy in each dented surfaces is converted to thermal energy and is lost from the bouncing process. A hardwood floor is very springy and returns its share of the collision energy efficiently. A properly inflated basketball is also very springy. Thus when a firm basketball bounces on a good hardwood floor, it bounces well. But if the basketball is underinflated, its surface bends too far so that it receives most of the collision energy and internal friction in the ball’s skin wastes most of that energy. The ball bounces weakly. And if you try to bounce the ball on a soft carpet, the carpet dents easily, receives most of the collision energy, and wastes most of it as thermal energy. Again, a weak bounce.

## What effects, if any, does storage temperature have on the height of a tennis ba…

#### What effects, if any, does storage temperature have on the height of a tennis ball’s bounce?

I suspect that cool storage will prolong the life of a tennis ball in an opened can. That’s because the ball’s bounciness depends on its retaining air inside its rubber shell. As the ball loses air by diffusion through the rubber, it loses its ability to bounce high. Diffusion is a thermally activated process in which the individual air molecules move between the rubber molecules and migrate through the material. At lower temperatures, the air molecules will move much more slowly through the rubber and the pressure inside the ball will stay high for a longer time.

## How do rubber bouncing balls work? Does the table exert more force than is appli…

#### How do rubber bouncing balls work? Does the table exert more force than is applied, causing an upward acceleration?

The table never pushes up on the ball harder than the ball pushes down on the table. That would violate Newton’s third law and is just not the way our universe works. As the ball strikes the table, the two objects dent. The ball dents most and has work done on its surface—the table pushes the surface inward and work is force times distance in the direction of that force. The ball stores this work/energy as a deformation of its elastic surface and a compression of the air inside the ball. The ball then rebounds from the table as this stored energy reemerges as kinetic energy in the ball. Throughout the bounce, the upward force that the table exerts on the ball is much larger than the ball’s downward weight. As a result, the ball accelerates upward the whole time. It starts the bounce heading downward and finishes the bounce heading upward.

## If all the laws of physics always happen the same, then what relevance does the …

#### If all the laws of physics always happen the same, then what relevance does the frame of reference have?

If you observe the world from an inertia frame of reference—meaning that you aren’t accelerating—then all of the laws of physics will apply properly to the objects you see. Energy will be conserved during activities, momentum will be transferred between objects without being created or destroyed, and so on. So it’s true that any inertial frame of reference will do. However, there is often a “best” reference frame from which to observe a situation. A good example of this is the situation in which a ball bounces from a bat. The best inertial reference frame from which to watch that bounce is the frame of the moving bat. In that special inertial reference frame, the bat doesn’t move and the ball bounces off the stationary bat.

## If I’m a WWF Wrestler, and I sling-shot myself off the ropes, and my momentum ca…

#### If I’m a WWF Wrestler, and I sling-shot myself off the ropes, and my momentum carries me as I put a flying shoulder block on my opponent, is my momentum conserved and do I feel any momentum against me?

As you bounce off the ropes, you exchange momentum with the ropes (and the earth). As a result, you normally reverse your momentum and head back into the ring. When you hit your opponent, you begin to exchange momentum with him/her. If you hit your opponent feet first and jump backward, you will reverse your direction of travel again and your opponent will receive an enormous amount of forward momentum. All of this transfer of momentum means that your personal momentum will change often but the total momentum of the earth and its population won’t change. That momentum will just be rearranged amount the various objects.

## If you throw a dead ball at a baseball, would the baseball not roll as far as if…

#### If you throw a dead ball at a baseball, would the baseball not roll as far as if you throw a super ball at it?

Your right. The dead ball transfers less momentum to the baseball than the lively super ball does. That’s because the dead ball transfers momentum only one, essentially coming to a stop on the baseball’s surface. The bouncy ball transfers momentum twice because it also pushes on the baseball as it rebounds. Overall the baseball receives more momentum (and also more energy) from the super ball than from the dead ball. The dead ball turns much of the collision energy into thermal energy.

## What forces are involved when hitting the sweet spot of a baseball bat?

#### What forces are involved when hitting the sweet spot of a baseball bat?

If the ball bounces from the sweet spot, the two push on one another hard. The ball slows to a stop and then reverses its direction, rebounding from the bat at high speed. The bat accelerates in the opposite direction, and begins to rotate slightly about its center of mass. This rotation is just right to keep the bat’s handle from accelerating either toward or away from the ball. That’s why the hit feels so clean and neat. The handle doesn’t accelerate. The force from the ball on the bat also doesn’t cause the bat to vibrate, because the sweet spot is a vibrational node.